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Baghdadi Jewish populations spread beyond Bombay to other parts of India, with an important community forming in Calcutta (Kolkata). Pramila (Esther Victoria Abraham) became the first ever Miss India, in 1947.
Scions of this community did well in trade (particularly jute and tea), and in later years contributed officers to the army. The Bene Ephraim are a small group of Telugu-speaking Jews in eastern Andhra Pradesh whose recorded observance of Judaism, like that of the Bnei Menashe, is quite recent, dating only to 1981.
They are divided into subcastes, which do not intermarry: 'Black' (Kara) and White (Gora), the latter believed to be lineal descendants of the shipwreck survivors, while the former are considered to descend from concubinage of a male with local women.
They were nicknamed the shanivār telī ("Saturday oil-pressers") by the local population as they abstained from work on Saturdays.
The Jews lived peacefully for over a thousand years in Anjuvannam.
After the reign of the Rabban's, the Jewish people no longer had the protection of the copper plates.
Neighboring princes of Anjuvannam intervened and revoked all privileges that the Jewish people were given.
In 1524, the Jews were attacked by the Moors brothers on a suspicion that they were messing with the pepper trade and the homes and synagogues belonging to them were destroyed.
Central to the history of the Cochin Jews is their close relationship with Indian rulers, and this was eventually codified on a set of copper plates granting the community special privileges.A link back to Rabban, "the king of Shingly" (another name for Cranganore), was a sign of both purity and prestige.Rabban's descendants maintained this distinct community until a chieftainship dispute broke out between two brothers, one of them named Joseph Azar, in the 16th century.Mumbai had a thriving Bene Israel community until the 1950s to 1960s when many families from the community emigrated to the fledgling state of Israel, where they are known as Hodi'im (Indians).
In India itself the Bene Israel community has shrunk considerably with many of the old Synagogues falling into disuse.
This was a time that teak, ivory, spices, and peacock were popular in trade in Cochin.